- Check skin: appearance of the knee.
- Check muscle: bulk, wasting, hypertrophy, surrounding muscles, symmetrical?
- Check bones: deformity
- Feet together check for leg alignment. Valrus or valgus? Be careful of hyperextension as it can cause show a false valrus.
- Leg length, knee joint and hip joint level
- Walk: antalgic gait, ataxia
- Stance and swing phase
- Walk on tip toes (plantar flexion) and walk on heels (dorsiflexion) to check balance, power and symmetry
- Feet together, heels on the floor
- Tip toe squat
- Compensation: range and pain
Laying down supine
- Feel temperature, effusion, quadriceps muscle wasting (measure?)
- Leg length
Leg length, feet flat