Armando Hasudungan
Biology and Medicine videos

Knee Examination



  • Check skin: appearance of the knee.
  • Check muscle: bulk, wasting, hypertrophy, surrounding muscles, symmetrical?
  • Check bones: deformity
  • Feet together check for leg alignment. Valrus or valgus? Be careful of hyperextension as it can cause show a false valrus.
  • Leg length, knee joint and hip joint level


  • Walk: antalgic gait, ataxia
  • Stance and swing phase
  • Walk on tip toes (plantar flexion) and walk on heels (dorsiflexion) to check balance, power and symmetry


  • Feet together, heels on the floor
  • Tip toe squat
  • Compensation: range and pain


Laying down supine


  • Feel temperature, effusion, quadriceps muscle wasting (measure?)
  • Leg length
  • Effusion:


Leg length, feet flat