Armando Hasudungan
Biology and Medicine videos

Thyroid Disease

The thyroid gland produces, stores, and secretes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) through a negative feedback process involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Thyroid dysfunction can result when any part of this process is affected. Accurate interpretation of thyroid function test is essential looking mainly at high or low TSH and free thyroid hormone levels

Thyroid Disease

Investigations

  • Thyroid Function Test (TSH, T3, T4)
  • Antibody Screen
Antibodies in Autoimmune thyroid disease
Conditions Anti-TPO Antithyroglobulin TSH receptor antibody
Grave’s Disease 70-80% 30-50% 70-100%
Hashimoto’s Disease 95% 60% 10-20%
  • Scintiscanning
  • Ultrasound
  • Fine needle aspiration
  • CT
Side Note Scintiscanning enables localization of sites of accumulation of radioiodine or sodium pertechnetate [99mTc], which gives information about the activity of the iodine trap. This can help assess hypo or hyperthyroid function. It can be useful to differentiate among causes of thyrotoxicosis. It may also provide information about the size and shape of the thyroid gland.