Gastroenteritis (Infectious Diarrhoea)
|Watch Video Gastroenteritis (Paediatric) – Overview|
Overview Gastroenteritis continues to cause significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. The most common cause are viral and bacterial including:
- Enteric adenoviruses
- Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.
- Campylobater jejuni
Diarrhoea: Loose, water like stools that occur with increased frequency and an increased volume of >200g per day
Gastroenteritis: >3 or more loose stools per day for <14 days
Chronic Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea that continue for more than 2 weeks
Malabsorption: Defined as the failure to absorb nutrients
Toddlers Diarrhoea: Clinical syndrome characterised by chronic diarrhoea often with undigested food in the stools of a child who is otherwise well, gaining weight and growing satisfactorily.
Gastroenteritis is usually self-resolving. Parasitic infection are uncommon but can be dangerous.
Signs and Symptoms
|Clinical Triad of Gastroenteritis: fever, vomiting, diarrhoea|
It is important to assess state of dehydration because this will tailor treatment. Dehydration can be either mild, moderate or severe.
- Rotavirus (most common)
- Hepatitis A, B, C, E
- Clostridium difficile
- Campylobacter jejuni
|Side note Most bacterial causes of diarrhoea are self-limiting and do not usually require antibiotic therapy.|
- Giardia Lamblia
- E. vermicularis
|Watch Video Giardia Lamblia|
|Watch Video Pin Worms – Enterobius Vermicularis|
- Full Blood Count
- Enzyme immunoassay
- Stool culture
- Blood culture
- Viral causes – Enzyme immunoassay and latex agglutination
- Bacterial causes – Stool and Blood culture +/- polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
- Parasitic causes – Microscopy of stool +/- PCR
- Electrolyte imbalance