Armando Hasudungan
Biology and Medicine videos

Glomerulonephritis

Overview Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomerulus.  Glomerulonephritis is classified by clinical syndrome/presentation (e.g. nephritic or nephrotic syndrome), histological appearance , or by aetiology. We will divide glomerulonephritis broadly into  two broad types: Nephritic glomerulonephritis and nephrotic glormerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis

Two Types of Glomerular disease:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEPHROTIC AND NEPHRITIS SYNDROME 
  Nephrotic Syndrome Nephritic Syndrome
Onset Slow Acute
Swelling ++++ ++
Blood Pressure Normal Increased
Proteinuria ++++ ++
Haematuria +/- +++
Red cell casts Not present Present
GFR Normal Normal/low
Serum albumin Low Normal/low
Serum lipids High Normal
Most commonc cause Diabetic Nephropathy IgA nephropathy

Approach

  • History
  • Examination
  • Investigations
    • EUC
    • Urinalysis
    • Urine culture
    • Immunological
    • X-ray
    • CT
    • MRI
    • Renal biopsy

Renal biopsy looks at the histology of glomerular disease

  • Light microscopy – Useful for morphology, chronicity, and diagnosis.
  • Immunofluorescence – Usually by immunofluorescence but also immunoperoxidase staining. Localizes immune reactants
  • Electron lightmicroscopy – Examining cell and basement membrane structure and for characterizing glomerular deposits.