Overview Infection of the urinary tract is common and more so in women (due to shorter urethra and hormonal changes). UTIs may be classified as either a lower (Cystitis, urethritis and Prostatitis) or upper UTI (pyelonephritis). The main causative agents are bacteria such as E-coli. A lower UTI can progress to an upper UTI causing systemic symptoms and acute loin pain.
The urinary system consists of:
The kidneys are retroperitoneal bean shaped organs thats sits between veretbral levels T11-L3, the left kidney sitting slightly higher then the right kidney.
The kidneys is divided into three sections:
Ureters are narrow muscular tube that transport urine to the bladder. There are three narrowed areas of each ureter:
Bladder is a muscular organ which holds urine. The wall of the bladder comprises of four layers:
Urethra Arisis from the base of the bladder and is the passageway through which urine is discharged from the body. The female urethra is much shorter (3-4cm) than the male urethra (18+cm)
|Watch Video Nephrology Overview
|Urinary Tract obstruction
Clinical Presentation - lower urinary tract infection
Clinical Presentation - upper urinary tract infection
|Side note Older people may also present with delirium, confusion, falls, immobility or anorexia
|Triad of Pyelonephritis (Upper UTI): Fever, flank/back pain and nausea/vomiting
|Remember Refer to Urologist if patient fails to respond to medical treatment, has recurrent UTIs, Haemturia and men with symptoms of UTI as this is considered abnormal.
|Watch video Urinary Tract Infection