Armando Hasudungan

Biology and Medicine Tutorials


  • History - patient relative
  • Agent
  • Dose
  • Time of ingestion


  • Vital signs
  • Neurological - tone, clonus, reactive pupils
  • Abdomen - bowel sounds
  • Skin changes
  • Urinary retention
  • Clinical syndromes

Anticholinergic syndrome

  • Delirium with mumbling speech, tachycardia, dry, flushed skin,

Cholinergic syndrome

  • Muscurinic effect - diarrhoea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, emesis
  • Nicotinic effect - mydriasis, tachycardia, weankess, hypertension, fasciculation, sweating
  • CNS effect - drowsy, delirium, confusion, coma, seizure

Sympathomimetics Syndrome

  • Causes amphetamine, ecstacy

Delusions, paranoia, tachycardia, tachypnoiec, pyrexia, piloerection

Cold and clammy with low saturation

Catecholamine induced cardiomyopathy

Chest X-ray pulmonary oedema

Opioid, sedatives or ethanol intoxication